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Global Journal of Art and Social Science Education

ISSN:  2437-1904  Vol. 3 (4), pp. 125-130, September, 2015

Review

Arabs contribution in advancing science and scientific research in the middle ages in Europe 

Omar Turki Mamdoh Ershidat 

Al-Balqa Applied University

Irbid University College, Jordan 

Abstract

The present life is the outcome of several joint civilized efforts over many successive ages. One of these efforts is the important role that Arabs played in the service of human civilization in general and in the development of science and scientific research during the Middle Ages in Europe in particular. The present study aims bring into light Arabs contribution in the development of anatomy during the middle ages in Europe. The study arrives at the following results: (1) Translation: Arabs were not merely literal translators, rather were writers able to recreate what they were translating. Thus, Arabs translations contributed in the development movement of old translated book which in turn helped advance anatomy. (2) Research: Arabs adopted the scientific approach in conducting research and experiments. Thus, Arabs were the first who explored the experimental approach in science where by they used a scientific approach based on induction, deduction and experiment. Moreover, they did not only conducted experiments, they also paid attention to theory that precedes experiment considering that an experiment is an application to theories arrived at in research. In brief, Arabs play a significant role in setting the principle of theory and practice which are considered an important foundation for all scientific progress though out ages. 3- Books writing and discovery: the most prominent Arab scholars in anatomy are abu hamifa addaynuri (895 CE) who wrote (On anatomy) , abu-Ja'far mohammad bin ahmad Al-Fafqi (1165CE)  who wrote (on medications), Ab-Al-Abbas bin arumiyah (1240CE) who wrote (An explanation of medications names in Dys coredes book), (A comprehensive book of medications) and (Al-Mughni on medications), Abu Bakr ahmad bin wahshiya who mrote (Nabatean cultivation), Mohammad bin Abi Bakr bin Abi-Taleb Al- ansari Addimashqi who wrote (Al-Multaqaet on romans and Nabatean cultivation), Ibn Al-Awwams book (cultivation) and Dawood Al-Antaki (1599CE) who wrote (The Gem on experimented food items). Many Arabic books on anatomy were also translated into european languages such Ibn Al Bitar'S (A comprehensive book on medications). The study recommends that a chapter of civics course, which is taught at Universities in Jordan, should be devoted to explaining the role that Arabs played in science development during the middle Ages in Europe. This will contribnte in consolidating Arab nationalism , the sense of belonging and giving, self confidence and trust in history, and the sense of belonging to this great nation to contribute in the development of our Arab society for a prosperous life and future. 

Key words: Arabs, advancing science,  scientific research, middle ages