GJARR Navigation
Publication Ethics
Call For Paper
Editorial Board
Guide to Authors
Editorial Workflow
Submit Manuscript
Viewing Options
[View Abstract]
[View Full Text PDF]
[Download Full Text PDF]
Authors Articles on Google Scholar
Singh Kamaleldin
Mahmoud Usman
Authors Articles on Pubmed
Singh Kamaleldin
Mahmoud Usman
Email this Article to a friend
Print this Article
Viewed: 84
Forwarded: 0
Printed: 28
Downloaded: 120
Browse Journals By Category
Agricultural Sciences
Biological Sciences
Legal Studies
Medical Sciences
Physical Sciences
Social Sciences

Newsletters Subscription

Global Journal of Agricultural Research and Reviews


ISSN:  2437-1858 Vol. 5 (2), pp. 244-247, March, 2017 


Full Length Research Paper


Diabetic retinopathy social risk factors among sudanese diabetic patients in Khartoum-Sudan 2016: hospital based cross-sectional study


Singh Kamaleldin and Mahmoud Usman



Diabetic retinopathy is one of the major complications of Diabetes that causes progressive damage to the retina. It is a serious sight-threatening disorder that may lead to blindness. The objective of this research was to study the social risk factors of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients aiming to gain information for prevention and control. This was a hospital based cross- sectional study conducted among 251 participants in 2016.The questionnaire was composed of 21 close-ended questions and study was estimated at 95% confidence level. 72% of the study group was living in rural areas. The majority of the study participants were of low income, less than 1000 SDG per month (35%) and less than 5000 SDG (42%). Educational level of 34% of the study candidates was Secondary level, 28% of the candidates were illiterate and 23% completed the basic level.Low income and low socio-economic status, low educational profile and living in rural areas or far from the center were significant factors associated with diabetic retinopathy among Sudanese Diabetic Patients.

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, rural residency, sudanese population, low income, education